Chichibu's name originated around 300 A.D., taken from the historical figure Chichibu Kunimomiyatsuko. Evidence of early civilization in the Chichibu area has been found in the discovery of artifacts that date back to the Middle Ages (300 A.D.) and the Nara Period (724 A.D.). During the Edo Period, approximately 400 years ago, the lumber and silk industries flourished. Even today, varieties of silk such as the Chichibu Meisen are particularly famous.

At the Old Chichibu Highway, which borders the Chichibu and Kosyu areas, numerous silk wholesale stores can be found lined up next to each other so that one building shares the eaves of the next. Visitors to this area can still experience vestiges of the atmosphere of the old Edo Period, as preserved by the historical buildings.